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Rule Change 2020(30) Colorado Rules of Professional Conduct

Rule 1.5. Fees

October 1, 2020

(a)–(b) [NO CHANGE]

(c) A “contingent fee” is a fee for legal services under which compensation is to be contingent in whole or in part upon the successful accomplishment or disposition of the subject matter of the representation.

(1) The terms of a contingent fee agreement shall be communicated in writing before or within a reasonable time after commencing the representation and shall include the following information:

(i) The names of the lawyer and the client;

(ii) A statement of the nature of the claim, controversy or other matters with reference to which the services are to be performed, including each event triggering the lawyer’s right to compensation;

(iii) The method by which the fee is to be determined, including the percentage or amounts that will accrue to the lawyer in the event of settlement, trial or appeal, or other final disposition, and whether the contingent fee will be determined before or after the deduction of (A) costs and expenses advanced by the lawyer or otherwise incurred by the client, and (B) other amounts owed by the client and payable from amounts recovered;

(iv) A statement of the circumstances under which the lawyer may be entitled to compensation if the lawyer’s representation concludes, by discharge, withdrawal or otherwise, before the occurrence of an event that triggers the lawyer’s right to a contingent fee;

(v) A statement regarding expenses, including (A) an estimate of the expenses to be incurred, (B) whether the lawyer is authorized to advance funds for litigation-related expenses to be reimbursed to the lawyer from the recovery, and, if so, the amount of expenses the lawyer may advance without further approval, and (C) the client’s obligation, if any, to pay expenses if there is no recovery;

(vi) A statement regarding the possibility that a court will award costs or attorney fees against the client;

(vii) A statement regarding the possibility that a court will award costs or attorney fees in favor of the client, and, if so, how any such costs or attorney fees will be accounted for and handled;

(viii) A statement informing the client that if the lawyer wishes to hire a lawyer in another firm to assist in the handling of a matter (“associated counsel”), the lawyer will promptly inform the client in writing of the identity of the associated counsel, and that (A) the hiring of associated counsel will not increase the contingent fee, unless the client otherwise agrees in writing, and (B) the client has the right to disapprove the hiring of associated counsel and, if hired, to terminate the employment of associated counsel; and

(ix) A statement that other persons or entities may have a right to be paid from amounts recovered on the client’s behalf, for example when an insurer or a federal or state agency has paid money or benefits on behalf of a client in connection with the subject of the representation.

(2) A contingent fee agreement must be signed by the client and the lawyer.

(3) The lawyer shall retain a copy of the contingent fee agreement for seven years after the final resolution of the case, or the termination of the lawyer’s services, whichever first occurs.

(4) No contingent fee agreement may be made

(i) for representing a defendant in a criminal case,

(ii) in a domestic relations matter, where payment is contingent on the securing of a divorce or upon the amount of maintenance or child support, or property settlement in lieu of such amounts, or

(iii) in connection with any case or proceeding where a contingency method of a determination of attorney fees is otherwise prohibited by law.

(5) Upon conclusion of a contingent fee matter, the lawyer shall provide the client a written disbursement statement showing the amount or amounts received, an itemization of costs and expenses incurred in handling of the matter, sums to be disbursed to third parties, including lawyers in other law firms, and computation of the contingent fee.

(6) No contingent fee agreement shall be enforceable unless the lawyer has substantially complied with all of the provisions of this Rule.

(7) The form Contingent Fee Agreement following the comment to this Rule may be used for contingent fee agreements and shall be sufficient to comply with paragraph (c)(1) of this Rule. The authorization of this form shall not prevent the use of other forms consistent with this Rule. Nothing in this Rule prevents a lawyer from entering into an agreement that provides for a contingent fee combined with one or more other types of fees, such as hourly or flat fees, provided that the agreement complies with this Rule insofar as the contingent fee is concerned.

(d)–(h) [NO CHANGE]


[1]–[2] [NO CHANGE]

[3] Repealed.

[4]–[5] [NO CHANGE]

Contingent Fees

[6] Contingent fees, whether based on the recovery or savings of money, or on a nonmonetary outcome, are subject to the reasonableness standard of paragraph (a) of this Rule. In determining whether a particular contingent fee is reasonable, or whether it is reasonable to charge any form of contingent fee, a lawyer must consider the factors that are relevant under the circumstances. Applicable law may impose limitations on contingent fees, such as a ceiling on the percentage allowable, or may require a lawyer to offer clients an alternative basis for the fee. E.g., 28 U.S.C. § 2678 (limiting percentage of fees in Federal Tort Claims Act cases); C.R.S. § 8-43-403 (limiting percentage of contingent fee in certain worker’s compensation cases). The prohibition on contingent fees in certain domestic relations matters does not preclude a contract for a contingent fee for legal representation in connection with the recovery of post-judgment balances due under support, maintenance or other financial orders because such contracts do not implicate the same policy concerns.

[6A] The scope of representation in a contingent fee agreement should reflect whether the representation includes the handling of counterclaims, third-party claims to amounts recovered, and appeals.

[6B] A lawyer may include a provision in a contingent fee agreement setting forth the lawyer’s agreement to reimburse the client for any attorney fees and costs awarded against the client. A provision in a contingent fee agreement in which the client must reimburse the lawyer for any attorney fees or costs awarded against the lawyer may be improper.

[6C] Nothing in this Rule prohibits a lawyer from arranging, in the contingent fee agreement or otherwise, for a third party to guarantee some or all of the financial obligations of the client in the contingent fee agreement.

[6D] Third parties often hold claims to amounts recovered by the lawyer on behalf of the client. The lawyer may be required, as a matter of professional ethics, to pay these amounts from the proceeds of a recovery and not to disburse them to the client.

[6E] A tribunal may award attorney fees to the client under a fee-shifting provision of a contract or statute or as a sanction for discovery violations or other litigation misconduct. The fee agreement may provide for a different allocation of such an award of fees as between the client and the lawyer depending on the circumstances giving rise to the award, such as whether the fees are awarded as a sanction for improper conduct that necessitated additional effort by the lawyer, or whether the fees are awarded under a contractual or statutory fee-shifting provision. This rule does not limit the ways in which clients and lawyers may contract to allocate awards of attorney fees; however, the lawyer must comply with the reasonableness standard of paragraph (a) of this Rule.

[6F] A conversion clause is a provision in a contingent fee agreement that notifies clients they may be liable for attorney fees in quantum meruit or on another alternate basis if the contingent fee agreement is terminated before the occurrence of the contingency. See, form Contingent Fee Agreement, ¶ (4). A conversion clause that requires payment of the alternate fee immediately upon termination, and regardless of the occurrence of the contingency, would discourage most clients from discharging their lawyer. Few clients have the financial means to pay a contingent fee from their own resources, with no guarantee of replenishment by a recovery from a third party. Therefore, a conversion clause that requires payment of the alternate fee immediately upon termination may be appropriate only if (a) the client is sophisticated in legal matters, has the means to pay the fee regardless of the occurrence of the contingency, and has specifically negotiated the conversion clause; and (b) the contingent fee agreement expressly requires payment of the alternate fee immediately upon termination.

[7]–[18] [NO CHANGE] 

Amended and Adopted by the Court, En Banc, October 1, 2020, effective January 1, 2021. 

By the Court:

Monica M. Márquez

Justice, Colorado Supreme Court

Official Colorado Supreme Court Rules Committees proceedings can be found at the Colorado Supreme Court Rules Committees website.

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